World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

New Emission Factors for Australian Vegetation Fires Measured Using Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy – Part 2: Australian Tropical Savanna Fires : Volume 14, Issue 5 (11/03/2014)

By Smith, T. E. L.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003975005
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 50
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: New Emission Factors for Australian Vegetation Fires Measured Using Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy – Part 2: Australian Tropical Savanna Fires : Volume 14, Issue 5 (11/03/2014)  
Author: Smith, T. E. L.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 5
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Paton-Walsh, C., Cook, G. D., Meyer, C. P., Russell-Smith, J., Maier, S. W., L. Smit, T. E.,...Yates, C. P. (2014). New Emission Factors for Australian Vegetation Fires Measured Using Open-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy – Part 2: Australian Tropical Savanna Fires : Volume 14, Issue 5 (11/03/2014). Retrieved from http://ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Description: King's College London, Earth and Environmental Dynamics Research Group, Department of Geography, London, UK. Savanna fires contribute approximately 40–50% of total global annual biomass burning carbon emissions. Recent comparisons of emission factors from different savanna regions have highlighted the need for a regional approach to emission factor development, and better assessment of the drivers of the temporal and spatial variation in emission factors. This paper describes the results of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic field measurements at twenty-one fires occurring in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, within different vegetation assemblages and at different stages of the dry season. Spectra of infrared light passing through a long (22–70 m) open-path through ground-level smoke released from these fires were collected using an infrared lamp and a field-portable FTIR system. The IR spectra were used to retrieve the mole fractions of fourteen different gases present within the smoke, and these measurements used to calculate the emission ratios and emission factors of the various gases emitted by the burning. Only a handful of previous emission factor measures are available specifically for the tropical savannas of Australia and here we present the first reported emission factors for methanol, acetic acid, and formic acid for this biome. Given the relatively large sample size, it was possible to study the potential causes of the within-biome variation of the derived emission factors. We find that the emission factors vary substantially between different savanna vegetation assemblages; with a majority of this variation being mirrored by variations in the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of different vegetation classes. We conclude that a significant majority of the variation in the emission factor for trace gases can be explained by MCE, irrespective of vegetation class, as illustrated by variations in the calculated methane emission factor for different vegetation classes using data subsetted by different combustion efficiencies. Therefore, the selection of emission factors for emissions modelling purposes need not necessarily require detailed fuel type information, if data on MCE (e.g. from future spaceborne total column measurements) or a correlated variable were available.

From measurements at twenty-one fires, we recommend the following emission factors for Australian tropical savanna fires (in grams of gas emitted per kilogram of dry fuel burned) which are our mean measured values: 1674 g kg−1 of carbon dioxide; 87 g kg−1 of carbon monoxide; 2.1 g kg−1 of methane; 0.11 g kg−1 of acetylene; 0.49 g kg−1 of ethylene; 0.08 g kg−1 of ethane; 1.57 g kg−1 of formaldehyde; 1.06 g kg−1 of methanol; 1.54 g kg−1 of acetic acid; 0.16 g kg−1 of formic acid; 0.53 g kg−1 of hydrogen cyanide; and 0.70 g kg−1 of ammonia.


Summary
New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy – Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires

Excerpt
Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T., Crounse, J. D., and Wennberg, P. O.: Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4039–4072, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011, 2011.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Akagi, S. K., Burling, I. R., Mendoza, A., Johnson, T. J., Cameron, M., Griffith, D. W. T., Paton-Walsh, C., Weise, D. R., Reardon, J., and Yokelson, R. J.: Field measurements of trace gases emitted by prescribed fires in southeastern US pine forests using an open-path FTIR system, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 199–215, doi:10.5194/acp-14-199-2014, 2014.; Bertschi, I. T., Yokelson, R. J., Ward, D. E., Christian, T. J., and Hao, W. M.: Trace gas emissions from the production and use of domestic biofuels in Zambia measured by open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D138469, doi:10.1029/2002JD002100, 2003a.; Bertschi, I., Yokelson, R. J., Ward, D. E., Babbitt, R. E., Susott, R. A., Goode, J. G., and Hao, W. M.: Trace gas and particle emissions from fires in large diameter and belowground biomass fuels, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8472, doi:10.1029/2002JD002100, 2003b.; Christian, C. S., Stewart, G. A., Noakes, L. C., and Blake, S. T.: General Report on Survey of Katherine-Darwin Region, 1946, Land Research Series No. 1. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia, Melbourne, 1953.; Cook, G. D. and Meyer, C. P.: Fire, fuels and greenhouse gases, in: Culture, Ecology and Economy of Savanna Fire Management in Northern Australia: Rekindling the Wurrk Tradition, edited by: Russell-Smith, J., Whitehead, P., and Cooke, P., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, 85–164, 2009.; Cook, G. D., Williams, R. J., Stokes, C. J., Hutley, L. B., Ash, A. J., and Richards, A. E.: Managing sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in Australia's rangelands and tropical savannas, Regional Ecology and Management, 63, 137–146, 2010.; DCCEE: Australian national greenhouse accounts: National Inventory Report 2008 Volume 1, Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, 279 pp., 2010.; Garde, M.: The language of fire: seasonality, resources and landscape burning on the Arnhem Land Plateau, in: Culture, Ecology and Economy of Savanna Fire Management in Northern Australia: Rekindling the Wurrk Tradition, edited by: Russell-Smith, J., Whitehead, P., and Cooke, P., CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, 85–164, 2009.; Griffith, D. W. T.: Synthetic calibration and quantitative analysis of gas-phase FTIR spectra, Appl. Spectrosc., 50, 59–70, 1996.; Griffith, D. W. T., Mankin, W. G., Coffey, M. T., Ward, D. E., and Riebau, A.: FTIR remote sensing of biomass burning emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O, in: Global Biomass Burning, edited by: Levine, J. S., The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 230–239, 1991.; Haverd, V., Raupach, M. R., Briggs, P. R., J. G. Canadell., Davis, S. J., Law, R. M., Meyer, C. P., Peters, G. P., Pickett-Heaps, C., and Sherman, B.: The Australian terrestrial carbon budget, Biogeosciences, 10, 851–869, doi:10.5194/bg-10-851-2013, 2013.; Hurst, D. F., Griffith, D. W. T., and Cook, G. D.: Trace gas emissions from biomass burning in tropical Australian savannas, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 16441–16456, 1994a.; Hurst, D. F., Griffith, D. W. T., Carras, J. N., Williams, D. J.

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Behavior of Ccn to Cn Fraction During Ag... (by )
  • Understanding Cirrus Ice Crystal Number ... (by )
  • Four-dimensional Variational Data Assimi... (by )
  • Cloud-scale Ice-supersaturated Regions S... (by )
  • Modeling Ultrafine Particle Growth at a ... (by )
  • An Overview of the Scout-amma Stratosphe... (by )
  • Validation of Uv-visible Aerosol Optical... (by )
  • Diurnal Variation of Stratospheric Hocl,... (by )
  • On the Growth of Nucleation Mode Particl... (by )
  • A Semi-lagrangian View of Ozone Producti... (by )
  • Interannual Variability of Long-range Tr... (by )
  • The Quasi 16-day Wave in Mesospheric Wat... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.