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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1977; Volume 55, Number 2-3, Year 1976 55 (2-3), Pages 171-178: Electron Microscope Cytochemistry of Host-Parasite Membrane Interactions in Malaria

By Susan G. Langreth

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Book Id: WPLBN0000060786
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Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1977; Volume 55, Number 2-3, Year 1976 55 (2-3), Pages 171-178: Electron Microscope Cytochemistry of Host-Parasite Membrane Interactions in Malaria  
Author: Susan G. Langreth
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
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Publisher: World Health Organization

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Langreth, S. G. (n.d.). Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1977; Volume 55, Number 2-3, Year 1976 55 (2-3), Pages 171-178. Retrieved from http://ebooklibrary.org/


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Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
There is a need for a reliable method to assess the origin and spread of malaria, and also to guide malaria control programmes. For this purpose, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) and the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) have recently been applied tentatively in the field. This paper is concerned with the IHA test only. Attention is paid to aspects of methodology, reproducibility, specificity, and sensitivity, and to comparative results obtained with both IHA and IFA tests. The first field application of the IHA test in a serologic survey is reported, and its value as a test for epidemiological surveillance is discussed. METHODS In the indirect haemagglutination test, haemagglutinating antibodies form protein bridges between red cells that were coated artificially with antigen. A physicochemical interpretation of the process of agglutination has been described (1, 2). Thus, it appears that agglutination depends on the sum or balance of forces that drive red cells together or drive them apart. If the repulsive force is greater than the cohesive force, the distance between antigenic sites on erythrocytes will be such that antibody molecules cannot form intercellular bridges between erythrocytes. Aggregation can be enhanced by heat and by gravitational or centrifugal forces; it is, however, the erythrocyte's surface tension that primarily acts in such a way as to produce aggregation. The surface interfacial energy brings the particles together, since aggregation is accompanied by a loss of free energy and-according to the second law of thermodynamics-a system is in equilibrium if its free energy is at a minimum. The repulsive force is related to the zeta potential, that is, the sum of the potentials on the negatively charged erythrocyte surface and at the boundary of the cloud of oppositely charged ions surrounding each red cell suspended in electrolyte solution. The zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength of the medium. It also decreases when the dielectric constant of the medium is increased by the addition of certain substances, such as colloids. Thus there exists in the system a critical range of surface tension and zeta potentials, above which agglutination cannot occur and below which aggregation occurs spontaneously. Within the range, agglutinating antibody molecules can link the red cells to form a three-dimensional lattice.

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