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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 6 - in English: Small-Scale Schemes and Informal Irrigation

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The types of scheme we are considering here are those which cover less than about 300 hectares, and where a large input of professional engineering skill is usually neither available, nor economic. It is difficult to provide guidelines for the incorporation of health safeguards into small scale irrigation projects for two reasons. One is that much of the activity is spontaneous by individual farmers and small groups, so that governments are often not aware of what is going on. This is not necessarily bad. Farmer initiative and farmer investment can be immensely beneficial to the nation as a whole and it can easily be cramped or hindered by too much bureaucratic interference, by inappropriately detailed legislation, or by the imposition of the kind of standards which are necessary on a large-scale governmentsponsored scheme, but which may not be within the technical competence or the financial resources of those undertaking individual or small group investments. The alternatives are often not between a crude scheme belonging to and operated by the people themselves and a well-designed and financed government scheme, but between a cru...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 5 - in French: Projets Officiels d’Irrigation de Grande Envergure Comportant Une Reinstallation de la Population

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Il est impossible, dans un seul chapitre des prbentes Lignes directrices, de traiter convenablement tous les problhes posh par la r6imtallation. Il convient toutefois de souligner qu'elle augmente les effets nocifs pour la sant6 tant par le nombre que par la vari6tk des risques. L'ouvrage le plus facile a obtenir sur ce sujet a 6tk publik par la Banque Mondiale (Cernea, 1988)....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 5 - in English: Large Formal Schemes with a Resettlement Component

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

It is impossible to do justice to the many problems of resettlement in terms of a section of this guideline. It is necessary, however, to emphasize that it increases adverse effects on health in terms of both quantity and variety of risk. The most recent easily available guideline on the subject is from the World Bank (see Cernea, 1988)....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 4 - in French: L’Incorporation de Mesures de Protection de la Sante dans les Nouveaux Projets d’Irrigation Importants

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Un nouveau projet d'inigation est une entreprise d'une telle arnpleur qu'elle requiert une planification soigneuse et des recherche complexes. Il existe deux types de pro*: ceux qui ont pour but d'introduire Y irrigation dans une rwon dejA densement peuplk par des agriculteurs qui ne comptent que sur les eaux de pluie, et les projets de rbtallation portant sur de. sols jusqu'alors peu u W s et oa il est prevu de faire vivre des personnes venant d'autres rkgions. Souvent, le premier type de projets donne @dement lieu A de nouveaux bblissements, puisque certaines term seront noyh ou utilis&s pour l'infrastrudure ghQale. Plus il y aura de nouveaux 6tablissements humains et plus le projet se rkv61era complexe, ce qui rendra les probl&mes de sante plus diffxdes A rboudre, et nous reviendrons sur cet aspect partidier de la question au Chapitre 4...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 4 - in English: Incorporating Health Safeguards into Large New Irrigation Projects

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

A large new irrigation project is such a major undertaking that it requires careful planning and complex investigations. There are two main types of scheme: those which bring irrigation to an area already quite densely settled by farmers practising rain-fed farming, and resettlement schemes, where the land was previously not much used for farming, and where it is planned to bring in additional settlers from outside the area. There is often a degree of resettlement even in the first type of scheme, because some land will be taken for reservoirs and other irrigation infrastructure. The greater the degree of resettlement necessary, the more complex the project and the more acute the health aspects, so that we shall give particular attention to these problems in chapter 4....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 3 - in French: Aspects Economiques Evaluation des Avantages Economiques

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Les avantages konomiques d'un projet d'irrigation, qui entrainent 6galement des avantages en rnatihe de santii, proviennent de la production additionnelle qu'il gknhe. I1 est par cons4quent essentiel que l'iivaluation konomique tienne compte des revenus provenant: des zones appelks A devenir des bassins de retenue; des zones qui seront privh de leurs ressources en eau existantes; de la production existante dans la zone qui pourra Gtre iniguk. ll hut analyser le diiveloppement probable de ces r6gions A l'avenir, en Yabsence de tout pro@ d'irrigation, aiin de voir si celui-ci se justifie du point de vue konomique, ce qui s'impose particulierement lorsqu'il s'agit de constituer une retenue importante. De tels projets peuvent poser de nombreux problemes qui sont trait& au Chapitre 4. Ces difficult& ne sont pas dues uniquement 21 la crhtion d'un rivage plus long qui peut abriter des vedeurs de maladie, mais @dement aux pressions sociales et politiques qui accompagnent les nouveaux hblissements humains. Les aspects konomiques d'un pro@ devront &e trh soigneusement hdi&, surtout l o w e la superficie potentielle ment irrigable est infheure...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 3 - in English: Economic Aspects Assessing the Economic Benefits

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The economic benefits of an irrigation project, which will also bring health benefits, come from the additional production it generates. It is therefore vital that the economic assessment takes properly into account the present income streams from: areas that will be converted into reservoirs areas that will be deprived of their existing water supplies the existing production in the area that can potentially be irrigated....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 2 - in French: Sante et Irrigation - les Liens les Rapports Entre Irrigation et Sante

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Le but de la prhente publication est de signaler aux planificateurs les liens qui existent entre l'inigation et la sant6, et d'assurer la collaboration entre les d6partements gouvernementaux afin de garantir les avantages d'une production agricole accrue et d'un meilleur 6tat de sant6 dans un cadre cofit /efficaat6 favorable. Un bon pro)et d'irrigation permettra une plus grande s M t 6 de Yapprovisionnement en eau durant me @ride plus longue au cours de l'annk. Ainsi, les agriculteurs accepteront le risque d'investissements plus @lev&a fin d'obtenir de meilleures rkoltes tant en W t kq u'en quantit6, pour leur propre profit et pour le bien du pays. Parmi les avantages qui en dkouleront pour la sant6 de la population, il y aura une alimentation plus ad6quate @ce 3 l'augmentation de la production des aliments de base, de meilleures possibilitks pour la culture de fruits et 16gumes, et l'accroissement du pouvoir d'achat pour des aliments non produits par l'agriculteur lui-meme. Une amklioration des revenus aura en outre me influence positive sur le niveau de la sant6, puisque les personnes pourront d6penser davantage pour leurs vetemen...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 2 - in English: Health and Irrigation - The Linkages the Links Between Irrigation and Health

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

This publication aims to alert planners to the linkages between irrigation and health, and to the collaboration between government departments which is needed to secure the advantages of increased agricultural production and a better health status in a cost-effective way. A good irrigation scheme will provide greater security of water supply over a longer period of the year. It will enable farmers to accept the risk of using a higher level of inputs, so that they can produce a larger volume and/or more valuable crops, to the benefit of both themselves and their country. Amongst the human health benefits should be improved diets resulting from an increasedproduction of staple foods, new opportunities of growing fruits and vegetables and increased purchasing power for foods not produced on the farm. Improved incomes should also positively affect health status by enabling people to spend more on clothing, housing, recreation and health. Further information on the general linkages between agriculture and health is available from WHO (see Lipton and de Kadt, 1988)...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 10 - in French: Liste des Principales Mesures pour Prevenir et Combattre les Maladies Transmises par Vedeurs II Chaque Phase d’Un Projet de Development des Ressources en Eau

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Examen des informations existantes sur la sante et les sujets connexes

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 10 - in English: Checklist of Major Steps for the Prevention and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases at Each Phase of Water Resource Development Projects

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Review of existing information on health and related subjects

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.2 1 - in French: Objectifs et Personnes Concembes

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Ces lignes directrices s'adressent aux responsables en matiere de politique gkn6raleI aux planificateurs et aux administrateurs qui se trouvent soudainement confront& B un projet d'irrigation alors qu'ils ne sont sp6cialisks ni en matiere d'imgation ni en matiere de santk. Ces lignes chrectrices seront en outre utile aux personnes qui sont sp6ciali&s dans un domaine et qui souhaitent en connaitre d'autres. Les objectifs en matiere de santk et de gknie civil sont prksenth dans un cadre konomique, car les projets d'irrigation sont genkralement trb cofiteux, et il faut les 6valuer avec soin afin d'etre certain que les Mnkfices qui en dkouleront soient r&ls et supkrieurs aux coots....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Community Water Supply, No. 91.1: List of Publications and Documents

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The prescnt booklet is the third edition of thc List of Publications and Documents produced by the World Acalth Organiation in thc community water supply and sanitation sector. It is organized in three sections....

C O N T E N T S I - W H 0 PUBLICATIONS Nun Serial Monographs Public Health Papers Technical Report Series WHO Offset Publications Periodicals Regional Publications II - TECFINICAL DOCUMENTS General Community Participation CWS (GWSETS) Series of Cooperative Action for the Decade Environmental Management for Vector-Control Human Resources Development Institutional Development Operation and Maintenance Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation Resource Mobilization Water and Health 111 - STAFF PAPERS 42 - 46...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization Cvd, No. 91.1: Report on the Global Monica Network Planning and Development Meeting

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

A meeting to plan and develop the Global MONICA Neework was held in Geneva , 15-17 October 1990

Table of Contents 1. The Need 2. Objectives 3.Network Operations 4. Critetia for Selection of network Centres and Resource Centres 5. resource Requirements...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Control of Tropical Diseases, Leprosy, No. 91.4: Report of the First Meeting of the World Health Organization Working Group on Leprosy Control

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The first meeting of the WHO Working Group on Leprosy Control was declared open by Dr R. Henderson, Assistant Director-General, WHO, Geneva. In his opening address, he welcomed all participants to the meeting, and stated that the creation of such a Working Group was timely, particularly in view of the very significant progress being made in leprosy control through multidrug therapy (MBT). He considered that the role of chis Group would be to redefine the strategies for leprosy control so that the 44th World Health Assembly resolution (WHA44.9), i.e. the global elimination of leprosy as a public health problem by the year 2000, could be achieved....

1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. BACKGROUND, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. SUMWRY OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL REVIEWS . . . . 3 4. THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. REVIEW OF INFORMATION ON THE NUMBER OF ESTIMATED CASES , . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6 . IMPLICATIONS OF THE ELIMINATION OF LEPROSY AS A PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM . . . . . 7 7. PROJECTION OF LEPROSY TRENDS IN THE 90's UNDER VARIOUS ASSUMPTIONS . . . . . , 7 8 . OPERATIONAL AND TECHNICAL PROBLEMS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MDT . . . . . . . . 8 9. PROGRESS WITH HEALTH SYSTEMS RESEARCH (HSR) IN LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 10,NEWDRUGDEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 11. VACCINES IN LEPROSY CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 12. DXSABILITIES IN LEPROSY . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 9 13. TRAINING MODULES: MANAGING PROGRAMNES FOR LEPROSY CONTROL . , , , . . . . . . 10 14. INTEGRATION OF LEPROSY CONTROL INTO GENERAL HEALTH SERVICES OR OTHER SERVICES . 10 15. MONITORING FOR LEPROSY CONTROL AN...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Control of Tropical Diseases, Leprosy, No. 91.1 - in French: Vers l’Elimination de la Lepre

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

A la fin de l'annee 1990 et pour la premiere fois depuis qu'il existe des statistiques assez fiables concernant les cas de lepre connus, le nombre de cas enregistres dans le monde a non seulement cesse d'augmenter, mais a aussi diminue sensiblement par rapport aux annees precedentes et ce malgre la poursuite d'activites intensives de depistage dans de nombreux pays. Pour la premiere fois depuis son introduction par l'organisation mondiale de la Santt (OMS) il y a presque dix ans, plus de la moitie des cas connus dans le monde ont beneficie de la PCT, dans plus de 90% des pays ou zones touches par la lepre. Pour la premiere fois, on peut parler d'une possible elimination de la maladie, du moins en tant que probleme de sante publique, a tel point qu'au debut de l'annee 1991, le Conseil executif de l'OMS a declare que l'organisation s'engageait a promouvoir le recours le plus large possible a la polychimiotherapie, associe a la poursuite des activites de depistage, afin d'atteindre cet objectif d'ici l'an 2000....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, Control of Tropical Diseases, Leprosy, No. 91.1: Towards Elimination of Leprosy

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

At the end of 1990, for the first time since reasonably reliable records of known leprosy cases have been kept, world numbers of registered cases not only ceased to rise but, despite continued intensive case detection activities in many countries, showed a significant fall over previous years. For the first time, almost a decade after its introduction by the World Health Organization (WHO), multidrug therapy (MDT) was being administered to more than half the known patients in the world in over 90% of countries or areas with leprosy. For the first time, it became reasonable to speak of the eventual disappearance of the disease, at least as a public health problem: so much so, that at the beginning of 1991 the WHO Executive Board proposed the Organization's . commitment to the widest possible use of multidrug therapy, in conjunction with continued case-finding activities, as a means to achieving this aim by the year 2000....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization Cpl Cvd, Nutrition, No. 91.1: Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

The possibility that what people like to eat may be hazardous to their health is a fairly recent worry in the course of human history. Throughout most of its existence, the human species survived hand-to-mouth on whatever it could manage to hunt, gather, harvest, or hoard. Anthropological studies show that the diet which fueled most of humanevolution waslow in fat, very low in sugar, and high in fibre and other complex carbohydrates....

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World Health Organization : Year 1991 : Communicable Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases ; Vph, No. 91.99: Report of the World Health Organization Working Group on Sazmonella Immunization in Animals

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Animal production hygiene has, in recent years, become an area of research and practice with new orientations. Remarkable influences, stimulating a whole series of national and international activities, originate from two major sources, namely increasing incidences of human infection related to food of animal origin and the demand for new managerial processes of food quality assurance....

CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 2. ADVANCES INRESEARCH .. . . . . . . . . . .3 2.1 Vaccine development for poultry . . . . . . 4 ...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991 : Communicable Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases ; Vph, No. 91.96: World Health Organization Consultation on Development and Training in Veterinary Epidemiology

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Veterinary sciences have for many decades been deeply involved in cpidcmiological investigations. The natural history of a long list of infcctions and the origin, pathways and dynamics of chemical and physical hazards have been revealed. New surveillance technologies have been developed with implications for field operations and laboratory procedures....

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 . SUMMARY OF INTRODUCTORY PAPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 . 1 H. J. Hapke: N e e d s for p r o m o t l n g veterinary e p i d e m i o l o g y . 2 . 2 D, P r o t z : S c o p e of e p i d e m i o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 3 P. Y o r k : The teaching of e p i d e m i o l o g y In the U n i t e d S t a t e 2.4 J . B e r g e r : C u r r e n t training activities of epidemiology in veterinary m e d i c i n e in E u r o p e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 5 P. Willeberg: A n a l y s i s of available training in veterinary m e d i c i n e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 T h . G i g e r : N e e d s in national p r o g r a m m e s . . . . . . . . . 2.7 M. E n g e l : T e a c h i n g e p i d e m i o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 . 1 S p e c i f i c orientations of e p i d e m i o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3 E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t ...

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