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Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forc...

By: S. J. Ghan

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA. Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated as a diagnostic with aerosol scattering...

Chand, D., Wood, R., Anderson, T. L., Satheesh, S. K., and Charlson, R. J.: Satellite-derived direct radiative effect of aerosols dependent on cloud cover, Nat. Geosci., 2, 181–184, doi:10.1038/Ngeo437, 2009.; Chen, W. T., Lee, Y. H., Adams, P. J., Nenes, A., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09801, doi:1...

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Analysis of Nucleation Events in the European Boundary Layer Usin...

By: S. Mikkonen; A. Hamed; M. Kulmala; A. I. Hienola; J.-p. Pietikäinen; A. Laaksonen; W. Birmili

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. This work describes improvements in the regional aerosol-climate model REMO-HAM in order to simulate more realistically the process of atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). As a first modification, a new scheme was implemented to simulate OH radical concentrations, now using a proxy approach based on observations and also accounting for the effects of clouds upon OH concen...

Andreae, M. O.: The aerosol nucleation puzzle, Science, 339, 6122, 911–912, doi:10.1126/science.1233798, 2013.; Birmili, W. and Wiedensohler, A.: New particle formation in the continental boundary layer: meteorological and gas phase parameter influence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3325–3328, 2000.; Birmili, W., Berresheim, H., Plass-Dülmer, C., Elste, T., Gilge, S., Wiedensohler, A., and Uhrner, U.: The Hohenpeissenberg ...

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Deployment of a Ground-based Cims Apparatus for the Detection of O...

By: F. Arnold; M. Hanke; B. Umann; K. Sellegri

Description: Atmospheric Physic Division, Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds were performed in the Finnish Boreal forest atmosphere during spring 2003, as part of the project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer), using a ground-based Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) instrument. Based on the study of their hydrate distribution, methanol...

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Diurnal Tracking of Anthropogenic Co2 Emissions in the Los Angeles...

By: B. Lefer; Y. L. Yung; X. Xu; A. E. Andrews; S. Alvarez; J. Peischl; C. E. Miller; B. Rappenglueck; C. L. Haman; E. A. Kort; M. L. Fischer; S. Newman; S. Jeong; K. R. Gurney

Description: Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. Attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause is critical to deducing and tracking emissions from observations. We have used in situ CO2, CO, and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) measurements recorded during the CalNex-LA (CARB et al., 2008) ground campaign of 15 May–15 June 2010, in Pasadena, CA, to dedu...

Affek, H., Xu, X., and Eiler, J.: Seasonal and diurnal variations of $^{13}C^{18}O^{16}$O in air: Initial observations from Pasadena, CA, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 5033–5043, 2007.; Bishop, G. A. and Stedman, D. H.: A decade of on-road emissions measurements, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 1651–1656, doi:10.1021/es702413b, 2008.; California Air Resources Board (CARB): California emission inventory data almana...

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Quantifying Population Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter Dur...

By: M. J. Kleeman; M. Hixson; A. Mahmud

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis CA 95616, USA. The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A business as usual (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynam...

Aw, J. and Kleeman, M. J.: Evaluating the first-order effect of intraannual temperature variability on urban air pollution, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D12, doi:10.1029/2002JD002688, 2003.; Brabson, B. B. and Palutikof, J. P.: Tests of the Generalized Pareto Distribution for Predicting Extreme Wind Speeds, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 1627–1640, 2000.; Coles, S. G. and Tawn, J. A.: Modelling extreme multivariate events, J. Roy. St...

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Radiative and Dynamical Contributions to Past and Future Arctic St...

By: O. Kirner; B.-m. Sinnhuber; R. Ruhnke; P. Bohlinger

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe, Germany. Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion is closely linked to the occurrence of low stratospheric temperatures. There are indications that cold winters in the Arctic stratosphere have been getting colder, raising the question if and to what extent a cooling of the Arctic stratosphere may continue into the future. We use meteorological reanal...

Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J., Berrisford, P., Poli, P., Kobayashi, S., Andrae, U., Balmaseda, M. A., Balsamo, G., Bauer, P., Bechtold, P., Beljaars, A. C. M., van de Berg, L., Bidlot, J., Bormann, N., Delsol, C., Dragani, R., Fuentes, M., Geer, A. J., Haimberger, L., Healy, S. B., Hersbach, H., Hólm, E. V., Isaksen, L., Kållberg, P., Köhler, M., Matricardi, M., McNally, A. P., Monge-Sanz, B. M., Morcrette, J.-J., Park, B.-K., Peubey, C., de Rosnay, P., Tavol...

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The Time Evolution of Aerosol Composition Over the Mexico City Pla...

By: G. I. Senum; Y.-n. Lee; S. R. Springston; P. H. Daum; J. Ortega; M. R. Canagaratna; J. Hubbe; L. I. Kleinman; M. L. Alexander; L. J. Nunnermacker; J. Jayne; J. Wang; J. Weinstein-lloyd

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA. The time evolution of aerosol concentration and chemical composition in a megacity urban plume was determined based on 8 flights of the DOE G-1 aircraft in and downwind of Mexico City during the March 2006 MILAGRO field campaign. A series of selection criteria are imposed to eliminate data points with non-urban emission influences. Biomass burning has urban and non-urban sources that are distinguished on t...

Aumont, B., Madronich, S., Bey, I., and Tyndall, G. S.: Contribution of secondary VOC to the composition of aqueous atmospheric particles: A modeling approach, J. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 35, 59–75, 2000.; Collins, D. R., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Improved inversion of scanning DMA data, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 36(1), 1–9, 2002.; Brechtel, F. J.: Description and Assessment of a New Aerosol Inlet for the DOE G-1 Research Aircraft. Final Technical Report of work perfor...

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Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and Their Radiative Forcing in Se...

By: Y. Qian; M. Huang; L. Ruby Leung; Z. Hu; Z. Lu; H. Yan; H. Wang; R. Zhang; C. Zhao; J. Jin; D. G. Streets; J. Huang; M. G. Flanner

Description: Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA. A state-of-the-art regional model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al., 2008) coupled with a chemistry component (Chem) (Grell et al., 2005), is coupled with the snow, ice, and aerosol radiative (SNICAR) model that includes the most sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate stu...

Dentener, F., Kinne, S., Bond, T., Boucher, O., Cofala, J., Generoso, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Hoelzemann, J. J., Ito, A., Marelli, L., Penner, J. E., Putaud, J.-P., Textor, C., Schulz, M., van der Werf, G. R., and Wilson, J.: Emissions of primary aerosol and precursor gases in the years 2000 and 1750 prescribed data-sets for AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4321–4344, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4321-2006, 2006.; Diner, D. J.,...

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Spectral Albedo of Arctic Snow During Intensive Melt Period : Volu...

By: R. Kivi; O. Meinander; A. Arola; S. Kazadzis; A. Kontu; V. Aaltonen; O. Hautecoeur; J.-l. Roujean; H. Suokanerva; T. Manninen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. Spectral albedo and water liquid content of intensively melting Arctic snow were measured during the Snow Reflectance Transition Experiment (SNORTEX), in Sodankylä, Finland, in April 2009. The upwelling and downwelling spectral irradiance, measured at 290–550 nm with a double monochromator spectroradiometer, revealed the snow albedo to increase as a function wavelength. At the same...

Arola, A., Kaurola, J., Koskinen, L., Tanskanen, A., Tikkanen, T., Taalas, P., Herman, J. R., Krotkov, N., and Fioletov, V.: A new approach to estimating the albedo for snow-covered surfaces in the satellite UV method, J. Geophys. Res., 108, D17, 4531, doi:10.1029/2003JD003492, 2003.; Bernhard, G. and Seckmeyer, G.: Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D12, 14321–14345, 1999.; Bernhard, G., Booth, C. R., Ehramjian, J. C., St...

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Limitations of Wind Extraction from 4-d-var Assimilation of Trace ...

By: D. D. Kuhl; L. Xu; G. E. Nedoluha; T. E. Rosmond; D. R. Allen; K. W. Hoppel; N. L. Baker

Description: Remote Sensing Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. Time-dependent variational data assimilation allows the possibility of extracting wind information from observations of long-lived trace gases. Since trace gas observations are not available at sufficient resolution for deriving feature-track winds, they must be combined with model background information to produce an analysis. If done with time-dependent variational assimilation, ...

Andersson, E., Pailleux, J., Thepaut, J. N., Eyre, J. R., Mcnally, A. P., Kelly, G. A., and Courtier, P.: Use of cloud-cleared radiances in 3-dimensional 4-dimensional variational data assimilation, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 627–653, 1994.; Baldwin, M. P., Stephenson, D. B., Thompson, D. W. J., Dunkerton, T. J., Charlton, A. J., and O'Neill, A.: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts, Science, 301, 636–640, 2003.; Coy, L., Allen, D. R., Ec...

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Aerosol Hygroscopicity and Ccn Activation Kinetics in a Boreal For...

By: S. Lance; D. Tkacik; A. Nenes; J. N. Smith; T. Petäjä; T. Raatikainen; M. Ehn; D. R. Worsnop; A. Laaksonen; K. M. Cerully; P. Tiitta; M. Kulmala

Description: School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), subsaturated hygroscopic growth, size distribution, and chemical composition were collected from March through May, 2007, in the remote Boreal forests of Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) cam...

Aalto, P. and Kulmala, M.: Using a cloud condensation nuclei counter to study CCN properties and concentrations, Boreal Environ. Res., 5, 349–359, 2000.; Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Zhang, Q., Sun, Y., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltenspe...

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Summertime Pm2.5 Ionic Species in Four Major Cities of China: Nitr...

By: T. Wang; W. S. Wu; R. K. Pathak

Description: Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China. Strong atmospheric photochemistry in summer can produce a significant amount of secondary aerosols, which may have a large impact on regional air quality and visibility. In the study reported herein, we analyzed sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 samples collected using a 24-h filter system at suburban and rural sites near fou...

Alastuey, A., Querol, X., Rodrigueza, S., Plana, F., Lopez-Soler, A., Ruiz, C., and Mantilla, E.: Monitoring of atmospheric particulate matter around sources of secondary inorganic aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 38, 4979–4992, 2004.; Allen, A. G. and Miguel, A. H.: Indoor organic and inorganic pollutants: In-situ formation and dry deposition in southeastern Brazil, Atmos. Environ., 29, 3519–3526, 1995.; Andrews, E., Saxena, P., Musarra, S., Hildemann, L. M., Koutrakis, P., Mc...

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Compilation of Henry's Law Constants, Version 3.99 : Volume 14, Is...

By: R. Sander

Description: Air Chemistry Department, Max-Planck Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. Many atmospheric chemicals occur in the gas phase as well as in liquid cloud droplets and aerosol particles. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the distribution between the phases. According to Henry's law, the equilibrium ratio between the abundances in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase is constant for a dilute solution. Henry's law consta...

Abd-El-Bary, M. F., Hamoda, M. F., Tanisho, S., and Wakao, N.: Henry's constants for phenol over its diluted aqueous solution, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 31, 229–230, 1986.; Abou-Naccoul, R., Mokbel, I., Bassil, G., Saab, J., Stephan, K., and Jose, J.: Aqueous solubility (in the range between 298.15 and 338.15 K), vapor pressures (in the range between 10−5 and 80 Pa) and Henry's law constant of 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene, Chemo...

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Comparison of the Cmam30 Data Set with Ace-fts and Osiris: Polar R...

By: D. Plummer; K. Walker; P. Sheese; J. Scinocca; D. Degenstein; D. Pendlebury; K. Strong

Description: Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. CMAM30 is a 30 year data set extending from 1979 to 2010 that is generated using a version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) in which the winds and temperatures are relaxed to the Interim Reanalysis product from the European Centre Medium-Range for Weather Forecasts (ERA-Interim). The data set has dynamical fields that are very close to the r...

Sica, R. J., Izawa, M. R. M., Walker, K. A., Boone, C., Petelina, S. V., Argall, P. S., Bernath, P., Burns, G. B., Catoire, V., Collins, R. L., Daffer, W. H., De Clercq, C., Fan, Z. Y., Firanski, B. J., French, W. J. R., Gerard, P., Gerding, M., Granville, J., Innis, J. L., Keckhut, P., Kerzenmacher, T., Klekociuk, A. R., Kyrö, E., Lambert, J. C., Llewellyn, E. J., Manney, G. L., McDermid, I. S., Mizutani, K., Murayama, Y., Piccolo, C., Raspollini, P., Ridolfi, M., Rober...

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How Stratospheric Are Deep Stratospheric Intrusions? : Volume 14, ...

By: H. Giehl; A. Stohl; M. Sprenger; T. Trickl; H. Vogelmann; H.-e. Scheel

Description: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK-IFU), Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Preliminary attempts of quantifying the stratospheric ozone contribution in the observations at the Zugspitze summit (2962 m a.s.l.) next to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps had yielded an approximate doubling of the stratospheric fraction of the Zugspitze ozone during the time period 1978 to ...

ATMOFAST: Atmosphärischer Ferntransport und seine Auswirkungen auf die Spurengaskonzentrationen in der freien Troposphäre über Mitteleuropa (Atmospheric Long-range Transport and its Impact on the Trace-gas Composition of the Free Troposphere over Central Europe), Project Final Report, edited by: Kerschgens, M., Stohl, A., and Trickl, T., funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research within the programme Atmosphärenforschung 2000, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IM...

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On the Reversibility of Transitions Between Closed and Open Cellul...

By: I. Koren; T. Yamaguchi; J. Kazil; G. Feingold

Description: Chemical Sciences Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), Boulder, Colorado, USA. The two-way transition between closed and open cellular convection is addressed in an idealized cloud-resolving modeling framework. A series of cloud-resolving simulations shows that the transition between closed and open cellular states is asymmetrical and characterized by a rapid (runaway) transition from the closed- to the open-cell state but slower reco...

Burleyson, C. D. and Yuter, S. E.: Subdiurnal stratocumulus cloud fraction variability and sensitivity to precipitation, J. Climate, 28, 2968–2985, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00648.1, 2015.; Ackerman, A. S., vanZanten, M. C., Stevens, B., Savic-Jovcic, V., Bretherton, C. S., Chlond, A., Golaz, J.-C., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Krueger, S. K., Lewellen, D. C., Lock, A., Moeng, C.-H., Nakamura, K., Petters, M. D., Snide...

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Simulating Aerosol Microphysics with the Echam/Made Gcm – Part II:...

By: A. Lauer; J. Hendricks

Description: DLR Institute of atmospheric physics, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany. First results of a multiannual integration with the new global aerosol model system ECHAM4/MADE are presented. This model system enables explicit simulations of the particle number concentration and size-distribution, which is a fundamental innovation compared to previous global model studies considering aerosol mass cycles only. The data calculated by the model provide det...

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Atmospheric Oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: Characterization of Gas an...

By: J. H. Offenberg; M. Lewandowski; K. Docherty; T. E. Kleindienst; M. Jaoui

Description: Alion Science and Technology, P.O. Box 12313, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated by irradiating 1,3-butadiene (13BD) in the presence of H2O2 or NOx. Experiments were conducted in a smog chamber operated in either flow or batch mode. A filter/denuder sampling system was used for simultaneously collecting gas- and particle-phase products. The chemical composition of the ga...

Acquavella, J. F.: Butadiene epidemiology: a summary of results and outstanding issues, Toxicology, 113, 148–156, 1996.; Angove, D. E., Fookes, C. J. R., Hynes, R. G., Walters, C. K., and Azzi, M.: The characterisation of secondary organic aerosol formed during the photodecomposition of 1,3-butadiene in air containing nitric oxide, Atmos. Environ., 40, 4597–4607, 2006.; Anttinen-Klemetti, T., Vaaranrinta, R., Mutanen, P., and Peltonen, K.: Inhalation exposure to 1,3-buta...

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Interrelated Variations of O3, Co and Deep Convection in the Tropi...

By: M. L. Santee; J. W. Waters; J. A. Logan; N. J. Livesey; R. M. Doherty; L. Froidevaux; J. H. Jiang; W. G. Read

Description: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA. The interrelated geographical and temporal variability seen in more than seven years of tropical and subtropical upper tropospheric (215 hPa) ozone, carbon monoxide and cloud ice water content (IWC) observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are presented. Observed ozone abundances and their variability (geographical and temporal) agree to within 1...

Ancellet, G., Beekmann, M., and Papayannis, A.: Impact of a cutoff low development on downward transport of ozone in the troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3451–3468, 1994.; Anenberg, S. C., West, J. J., Fiore, A. M., Jaffe, D. A., Prather, M., Bergmann, D., Cuvelier, C., Dentener, F., Duncan, B., Gauss, M., Hess, P., Jonson, J., Lupu, A., MacKenzie, I., Marmer, E., Park, R., Sanderson, M., Schultz, M., Shindell, D., Szopa, S., Vivanco, M. G., Wild, O., and Zeng, G.: Int...

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Enhancement and Depletion of Lower/Middle Tropospheric Ozone in Se...

By: R. Fitzhugh; M. Gueye; A. Kebe; S. Ndiaye; G. S. Jenkins; J. W. Smith

Description: Howard University Program in Atmospheric Science, Washington DC 20059, USA. During the summer (8 June through 3 September) of 2008, nine ozonesondes are launched from Dakar, Senegal (14.75° N, 17.49° W) to investigate the impact of the Saharan Dust Layer (SAL) on ozone (O3) concentrations in the lower troposphere. Results during June (pre-monsoon period) show a reduction in O3, especially in the 850–700 hPa layer with SAL events. H...

Bian, H. and Zender C. S.: Mineral dust and global tropospheric chemistry: Relative roles of photolysis and heterogeneous uptake, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4672, doi:10.1029/2002JD003143, 2003.; Bonasoni, P., Cristofanelli, P., Calzolari, F., Bonafè, U., Evangelisti, F., Stohl, A., Zauli Sajani, S., van Dingenen, R., Colombo, T., and Balkanski, Y.: Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes, Atmos. Chem. Phys...

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