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Surface Observation of Sand and Dust Storm in East Asia and Its Ap...

By: T. Niu; X. Q. Hu; Y. Q. Wang; X. Y. Zhang; H. L. Liu; Y. Q. Yang; C. H. Zhou; S. L. Gong

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China. The spatial-temporal distributions and sources of sand and dust storm (SDS) in East Asia from 2001 to 2006 were investigated on the basis of visibility and PM10 data from the routine SDS and weather monitoring networks run by CMA (China Meteorological Administration). A power functional relationships between...

Fei, J., Zhou, J., Zhang, Q., and Chen, H.: Dust weather records in Beijing during 1860–1898 AD based on the Diary of Tonghe Weng, Atmos. Environ., 39, 3943–3946, 2005.; Gong, S. L., Zhang, X. Y., Zhao, T. L., and Barrie, L. A.: Sensitivity of Asian dust storm to natural and anthropogenic factors. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07210, doi:10.1029/2004GL019502, 2004.; Hu, X. Q., Lu, N. M., Niu, T., and Zhang, P.: Operational retrieval of Asian sand and dust storm from FY-2C ge...

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Explicit Simulations of Aerosol Physics in a Cloud-resolving Model...

By: J. Wilson; J. Ström; C. Wang; A. M. L. Ekman

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. The role of convection in introducing aerosols and promoting the formation of new particles to the upper troposphere has been examined using a cloud-resolving model coupled with an interactive explicit aerosol module. A baseline simulation suggests good agreement in the upper troposphere between modeled and observed results including concentrations of aerosols in different size ranges...

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Gps Radio Occultation with Champ: Monitoring of Climate Change Par...

By: S. Heise; G. Beyerle; J. Wickert; T. Schmidt; C. Reigber

Description: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Department 1: Geodesy and Remote Sensing, Potsdam, Germany. The Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) technique offers a valuable new data source for global and continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmosphere. Refractivity, temperature and water vapor profiles with high accuracy and vertical resolution can be derived from this method. The GPS RO technique requires no calibration, is not affected by clouds, ...

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Real-time Characterization of Particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic H...

By: S. Hu; S. Biswas; A. Polidori; C. Sioutas; R. J. Delfino

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California, 3620 South Vermont Ave., Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA. A photo-electric aerosol sensor, a diffusion charger, an Aethalometer, and a continuous particle counter were used along with other real-time instruments to characterize the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (p-PAH) content, and the physical/chemical characteristics of aerosols collected a) in Wilmington...

Ayala, A., Kado, N. Y., Okamoto, R. A., Holmen, B. A., Kuzmicky, P. A., Kobayashi, R., Stiglitz, K. E. Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Bus: Emissions over Multiple Driving Schedules: Regulated Pollutants and Project Overview, Journal of Lubricants and Fuels, SAE Transactions, 111, 735–747, 2002.; Baltensperger, U., Streit, N., Weingartner, E., Nyeki, S., Prevot, A. S. H., Van Dingenen, R., Virkkula, A., Putaud, J. P., Even, A., et al.: Urban and rural aerosol character...

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Influence of Along-valley Terrain Heterogeneity on Exchange Proces...

By: M. W. Rotach; A. Gohm; J. S. Wagner

Description: Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Austria. Idealized numerical simulations of thermally driven flows over various valley–plain topographies are performed under daytime conditions. Valley floor inclination and narrowing valley cross sections are systematically varied to study the influence of along-valley terrain heterogeneity on the developing boundary layer structure, as well as horizontal and vertical transport processes...

Catalano, F. and Cenedese, A.: High-resolution numerical modeling of thermally driven slope winds in a valley with strong capping, J. Appl. Meteorol., 49, 1859–1880, 2010.; Catalano, F. and Moeng, C.-H.: Large-eddy simulation of the daytime boundary layer in an idealized valley using the Weather Research and Forecasting numerical model, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 137, 49–75, doi:10.1007/s10546-010-9518-8, 2010.; Colette...

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Laboratory Investigation of Photochemical Oxidation of Organic Aer...

By: J. M. Logue; N. M. Donahue; A. L. Robinson; A. P. Grieshop

Description: Center for Atmospheric Particle Studies, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA) emissions from flaming and smoldering hard- and soft-wood fires under plume-like conditions. This was done by exposing the dilute emissions from a small wood stove to UV light in a smog chamber and measuring the gas- and particle-phase pollutant concentrations ...

% vor jede Referenz Abel, S. J., Haywood, J. M., Highwood, E. J., Li, J., and Buseck, P. R.: Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1783, doi:1710.1029/2003GL017342, 2003.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K....

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Modelling Representation Errors of Atmospheric Co2 Concentrations ...

By: W. Peters; A. G. C. A. Meesters; A. J. Dolman; L. F. Tolk

Description: VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Inverse modelling of carbon sources and sinks requires an accurate estimate of the quality of the observations to obtain a realistic estimate of the inferred fluxes and their uncertainties. Representation errors, defined here as the mismatch between point observations and grid cell averages, may add substantial uncertainty to the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 concentration data. We used...

Ahmadov, R., Gerbig, C., Kretschmer, R., Koerner, S., Neininger, B., Dolman, A., and Sarrat, C.: Mesoscale covariance of transport and CO2 fluxes: Evidence from observations and simulations using the wrf-vprm coupled atmosphere-biosphere model, J. Geophys. Res, 112, D22107, doi:10.1029/2007JD008552, 2007.; Ara\'ujo de, A. C., Kruijt, B., Nobre, A. D., Dolman, A. J., Waterloo, M. J., Moors, E. J., and Souza de, J. S.: Nocturnal accumulation of CO2 un...

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Revisiting Twomey's Approximation for Peak Supersaturation : Volum...

By: B. J. Shipway

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the ...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844, doi:10.1029/1999JD901161, 2000.; Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I. A.: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover, 1964.; Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toon, O. B.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014...

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The Weekend Effect Within and Downwind of Sacramento – Part 1: Obs...

By: P. A. Cleary; D. A. Day; P. J. Wooldridge; R. C. Cohen; D. B. Millet; A. H. Goldstein; J. G. Murphy

Description: University of California at Berkeley, Department of Chemistry, USA. Day-of-week patterns in human activities can be used to examine the ways in which differences in primary emissions result in changes in the rates of photochemical reactions, and the production of secondary pollutants. Data from twelve California Air Resources Board monitoring sites in Sacramento, CA, and the downwind Mountain Counties air basin are analyzed to reveal day of week pattern...

D. o. Finance: Revised Historical City, County and State Population Estimates, 1991–2000, with 1990 and 2000 Census Counts., State of California, 2002.; Altshuler, S. L., Arcado, T. D., and Lawson, D. R.: Weekday vs weekend ambient ozone concentrations - discussion and hypotheses with focus on Northern California, J. Air Waste Manage., 45, 967–972, 1995.; Ashworth, J. R.: The influence of smoke and hot gases from factory chimneys on rainfall, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 55,...

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Experimentally Measured Morphology of Biomass Burning Aerosol and ...

By: A. Asa-awuku; C. Espinoza; M. Giordano

Description: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, California, USA. This study examines the morphological properties of freshly emitted and atmospherically aged aerosols from biomass burning. The impacts of particle morphology assumptions on hygroscopic predictions are examined. Chamber experiments were conducted at the University of California, Riverside, Center for Environmental Research and Technolo...

Dahneke, B.: Slip correction factors for nonspherical bodies-II Free molecule flow, J. Aerosol Sci., 4,147–161, l973b.; Biskos, G., Paulsen, D., Russell, L. M., Buseck, P. R., and Martin, S. T.: Prompt deliquescence and efflorescence of aerosol nanoparticles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4633–4642, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4633-2006, 2006.; Dahneke, B.: Slip correction factors for nonspherical bodies-I Introduction and continuum f...

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A Six Year Satellite-based Assessment of the Regional Variations i...

By: J. Quaas; S. A. Christopher; T. A. Jones

Description: Earth System Science Center, UAHuntsville, Huntsville, AL, USA. Aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for cloud water droplets, and changes in aerosol concentrations have significant microphysical impacts on the corresponding cloud properties. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud properties are combined with NCEP Reanalysis data for six different regions around the globe between March 2000 and December 2005 t...

Ackerman, A. S., Toon, O. B., Stevens, D. E., Heymsfield, A. J., Ramanathan, V., and Welton, E. J.: Reduction of tropical cloudiness by soot, Science, 288, 1042–1047, 2000.; Ackerman, A. S., Toon, O. B., Stevens, D. E., and Coakley Jr., J. A.: Enhancement of cloud cover and suppression of nocturnal drizzle in stratocumulus polluted by haze, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, L1381, doi:10.1029/2002GL016634, 2003.; Albrecht, B.: Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudine...

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A Computationally-efficient Secondary Organic Aerosol Module for T...

By: P. Liu; Y. Zhang

Description: Dept. of Marine, Earth, and Atmos. Sci., North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Accurately simulating secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in three-dimensional (3-D) air quality models is challenging due to the complexity of the physics and chemistry involved and the high computational demand required. A computationally-efficient yet accurate SOA module is necessary in 3-D applications for long-term simulations and real-time air quality fo...

Andersson-Sköld, Y. and Simpson, D.: Secondary organic aerosol formation in northern Europe: A model study, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D7), 7357–7374, 2001.; Ansari, A. S. and Pandis, S. N.: Water absorption by secondary organic aerosol and its effect on inorganic aerosol behavior, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 71–77, 2000.; Aumont, B., Madronich, S., Bey, I., and Tyndall, G. S.: Contribution of secondary VOC to the composition of aqueous atmospheric particles: A modeling appro...

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Technical Note: Evaluating a Simple Parameterization of Radiative ...

By: R. M. Bright; M. M. Kvalevåg

Description: Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Land use activities affect Earth's energy balance not only via biogeochemical emissions but also through perturbations in surface albedo, the latter of which is often excluded in impact assessment studies. In this short technical note, we present and compare a simple model for estimating shortwave radiative forcings at the top of Earth's...

Fu-Liou: Fu-Liou online 200507 (Diurnal Simulation), available at: http://snowdog.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/rose/flp200503/sun/flsun.cgi, last access: 3 February 2011, 2005.; Barr, A. and Black, A.: Saskatchewan BERMS Old Aspen Site Gap-filled Meterological Dataset, available at: http://fluxnet.ornl.gov, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archi...

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Aerosol Optical Properties Relevant to Regional Remote Sensing of ...

By: J. M. Tomlinson; G. C. Roberts; J. L. Jimenez; D. R. Collins; E. J. Dunlea; C. S. McNaughton; V. N. Kapustin; Y. Shinozuka; S. G. Howell; P. F. Decarlo; A. D. Clarke; J. Zhou

Description: School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA. Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated...

Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., and Jimenez, J. L.: Elemental Analysis of Organic Species with Electron Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Analyt. Chemistry, 79, 8350–8358, 2007.; Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., et al.: O/C and OM/OC Ratios of Primary, Secondary, and Ambient Organic Aerosols with High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 4478–4485, 2008.; Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, ...

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Evaluation of Very High-resolution Simulations with the Non-hydros...

By: L. Neunhäuserer; B. Fay

Description: German Weather Service DWD, Offenbach, Germany. The operational numerical weather prediction model Lokalmodell LM with 7 km horizontal resolution was evaluated for simulations of the meteorological conditions during observed urban air pollution episodes. The resolution was increased to experimental 2.8 km and 1.1 km resolution by one-way interactive nesting without introducing urbanisation of physiographic parameters or parameterisations. The episodes e...

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Reconciliation of Measurements of Hygroscopic Growth and Critical ...

By: T. W. Choularton; N. Good; G. McFiggans; M. Irwin; J. Crosier

Description: School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Aerosol physical, chemical and hygroscopic properties were measured in a range of airmasses during COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study) ground-based in June and July of 2007 at the Hornisgrinde mountain site in the Black Forest, Southwest Germany. Hygroscopic growth factors at 86% relative humidity were measured and critical sup...

Gysel, M., Crosier, J., Topping, D. O., Whitehead, J. D., Bower, K. N., Cubison, M. J., Williams, P. I., Flynn, M. J., McFiggans, G. B., and Coe, H.: Closure study between chemical composition and hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles during TORCH2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 6131–6144, doi:10.5194/acp-7-6131-2007, 2007.; Hallquist, M., Wenger, J. C., Baltensperger, U., Rudich, Y., Simpson, D., Claeys, M., Dommen, J., Donahue, N. M., George, C., Goldstein, A. H., Hamilton,...

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The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: Overview and Ai...

By: D. W. T. Griffith; P. Artaxo; T. Karl; A. Guenther; R. J. Yokelson; W. M. Hao; T. J. Christian; D. R. Blake

Description: University of Montana, Department of Chemistry, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA. The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Em...

Andrade, S. M. A., Neto, W. N., and Miranda, H. S.: The dynamics of components of the fine fuel after recurrent prescribed fires in Central Brazil savannas, Proceedings of the Bushfire 99 Conference, Alburn, Australia, 1998.; Andreae, M. O., Anderson, B. E., Blake, D. R., Bradshaw, J. D., Collins, J. E., Gregory, G. L., Sachse, G. W., and Shipham, M. C.: Influence of plumes from biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry over the equatorial and tropical South Atlantic duri...

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Aeronet-based Microphysical and Optical Properties of Smoke-domina...

By: T. F. Eck; A. Smirnov; N. C. Hsu; B. N. Holben; A. M. Sayer

Description: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA. Smoke aerosols from biomass burning are an important component of the global aerosol cycle. Analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals of size distribution and refractive index reveals variety between biomass burning aerosols in different global source regions, in terms of aerosol particle size and single scatter albedo (SSA). Case studies of smoke transported to coastal/island AE...

Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, J. A., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Docherty, K. S., Sueper, D., Kimmel, J. R., Worsnop, D. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., Volkamer, R. M., Fortner, E., de Foy, B., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., Gaffney, J., Marley, N. A., Paredes-Miranda, G., Arnott, W. P., Molina, L. T., Sosa, G., and Jimenez, J. L.: Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using hi...

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Corrigendum to Airborne Hydrogen Cyanide Measurements Using a Chem...

By: J. B. A. Muller; M. N. R. Ashfold; S. J. O'Shea; M. Parrington; S. J.-b. Bauguitte; G. Forster; J. D. Lee; D. E. Shallcross; D. E. Oram; A. Bacak; M. Le Breton; P. I. Palmer; C. J. Percival; A. C. Lewis; M. C. Cooke; P. Xiao; R. Batt

Description: The Centre for Atmospheric Science, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Simon Building, Brunswick Street, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK. No abstract available.

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Water Vapour Profiles from Raman Lidar Automatically Calibrated by...

By: B. Pospichal; P. Di Girolamo; H. Baars; A. Foth

Description: Leipzig Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. In this paper, we present a method to derive water vapour profiles from Raman lidar measurements calibrated by the integrated water vapour (IWV) from a collocated microwave radiometer during the intense observation campaign HOPE in the frame of the HD(CP)2 initiative. The simultaneous observation of a microwave radiometer and a Raman lidar allowed an operational ...

Althausen, D., Engelmann, R., Baars, H., Heese, B., Ansmann, A., Müller, D., and Komppula, M.: Portable Raman lidar PollyXT for automated profiling of aerosol backscatter, extinction, and depolarization, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 26, 2366–2378, doi:10.1175/2009JTECHA1304.1, 2009.; Ansmann, A., Wandinger, U., Riebesell, M., Weitkamp, C., and Michaelis, W.: Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter...

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